Association between weight change and incidence of cardiovascular disease events and mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of observational studies and behavioural intervention trials.
PubMed ID : 34859263
PMCID : PMC8803822
Weight loss is often recommended in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. While evidence has shown that large weight loss may lead to diabetes remission and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, long-term impacts are unclear. We performed a systematic review of studies of weight loss and other weight changes and incidence of CVD among people with type 2 diabetes.
Observational studies of behavioural (non-surgical and non-pharmaceutical) weight changes and CVD events among adults with type 2 diabetes, and trials of behavioural interventions targeting weight loss, were identified through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) until 9 July 2019. Included studies reported change in weight and CVD and/or mortality outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. We performed a narrative synthesis of observational studies and meta-analysis of trial data.
Of 13,227 identified articles, 17 (14 observational studies, three trials) met inclusion criteria. Weight gain (vs no change) was associated with higher hazard of CVD events (HRs [95% CIs] ranged from 1.13 [1.00, 1.29] to 1.63 [1.11, 2.39]) and all-cause mortality (HRs [95% CIs] ranged from 1.26 [1.12, 1.41] to 1.57 [1.33, 1.85]). Unintentional weight loss (vs no change) was associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality, but associations with intentional weight loss were unclear. Behavioural interventions targeting weight loss showed no effect on CVD events (pooled HR [95% CI] 0.95 [0.71, 1.27]; I = 50.1%). Risk of bias was moderate in most studies and was high in three studies, due to potential uncontrolled confounding and method of weight assessment.
Weight gain is associated with increased risks of CVD and mortality, although there is a lack of data supporting behavioural weight-loss interventions for CVD prevention among adults with type 2 diabetes. Long-term follow-up of behavioural intervention studies is needed to understand effects on CVD and mortality and to inform policy concerning weight management advice and support for people with diabetes. PROSPERO registration CRD42019127304.