Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess in adolescent girls.
Nature reviews. Endocrinology 2014 ; 10: 499-508.
DOI : 10.1038/nrendo.2014.58
PubMed ID : 24776733
PMCID : 0
Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess is the most common cause of hirsutism, acne and menstrual irregularity in adolescent girls. Here, we propose that the disorder frequently originates from an absolute or relative excess of lipids in adipose tissue, and from associated changes in insulin sensitivity, gonadotropin secretion and ovarian androgen release. Girls from populations with genotypes attuned to nutritionally harsh conditions seem to be particularly vulnerable to the development of hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess in today's obesogenic environment. We propose that hirsutism, hyperandrogenaemia and menstrual irregularity (≥2 years after menarche) is used as a diagnostic triad for the disorder. No pharmacological therapy has been approved for girls with androgen excess; however, lifestyle intervention is essential to reduce adiposity. In girls without obesity who are not sexually active, insulin sensitization has more broadly normalizing effects than estradiol-progestogen combinations. The early recognition of girls at risk of developing hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess might enable prevention in childhood.