Socioeconomic distribution of food outlet availability through online food delivery services in seven European countries: A cross-sectional study.
Health & place 2023 ; 84: 103135.
PubMed ID : 37832327
This area-level cross-sectional study examined online food outlet availability through the most popular online food delivery service platforms (OFDS) across seven European countries, and explored how this online food outlet availability was socioeconomically distributed. Data collection of online food outlet availability was automated in England, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland. We used a geographic information system to join online food outlet availability to socio-demographic information. Median number of food outlets delivering through OFDS was highest in England and lowest in Italy, Portugal and Spain. We also found that high-income areas have the greatest online food outlet availability in most countries. In England, areas with a middle income had the least online food outlets available and no income data was available for Switzerland. Further work is needed to understand drivers of disparities in online food outlet availability, as well as possible implications for public health.