The association of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and diabetes among adults in north-western Tanzania: A cross-sectional study.
Frontiers in endocrinology 2022 ; 13: 885988.
PubMed ID : 35992098
PMCID : PMC9381963
Research on the associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance among adults in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is limited. We assessed the association of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with β-cell function, insulin resistance and diabetes among people living with HIV (PLWH) ART-naïve and HIV-uninfected Tanzanian adults.
In a cross-sectional study, we collected data on socio-demography, anthropometry, fat mass and fat free mass and C-reactive protein. Data on glucose and insulin collected during an oral glucose tolerance test were used to assess β-cell dysfunction (defined as insulinogenic index <0.71 (mU/L)/(mmol/L), HOMA-β index <38.3 (mU/L)/(mmol/L), and overall insulin release index <33.3 (mU/L)/(mmol/L)), oral disposition index <0.16 (mU/L)/(mg/dL)(mU/L), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index >1.9 (mU/L)/(mmol/L) and Matsuda index <7.2 (mU/L)/(mmol/L), prediabetes and diabetes which were the dependent variables. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), sleeping heart rate (SHR), and maximum uptake of oxygen during exercise (VO max) were the independent variables and were assessed using a combined heart rate and accelerometer monitor. Logistic regressions were used to assess the associations.
Of 391 participants, 272 were PLWH and 119 HIV-uninfected. The mean age was 39 ( ± 10.5) years and 60% (n=235) were females. Compared to lower tertile, middle tertile of PAEE was associated with lower odds of abnormal insulinogenic index (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.27, 0.82). A 5 kj/kg/day increment of PAEE was associated with lower odds of abnormal HOMA-IR (OR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.84, 0.98), and reduced risk of pre-diabetes (RRR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.99) and diabetes (RRR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.88, 0.96). An increment of 5 beats per min of SHR was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RRR=1.06, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.11). An increase of 5 mLO/kg/min of VO max was associated with lower risk of pre-diabetes (RRR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.97), but not diabetes. HIV status did not modify any of these associations (interaction, p>0.05).
Among Tanzanian adults PLWH and HIV-uninfected individuals, low physical activity was associated with β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and diabetes. Research is needed to assess if physical activity interventions can improve β-cell function and insulin sensitivity to reduce risk of diabetes and delay progression of diabetes in SSA.