Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
The British journal of nutrition 2011 ; 108: 1095-108.
Knaze V, Zamora-Ros R, Luján-Barroso L, Romieu I, Scalbert A, Slimani N, Riboli E, van Rossum CT, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Trichopoulou A, Dilis V, Tsiotas K, Skeie G, Engeset D, Quirós JR, Molina E, Huerta JM, Crowe F, Wirfäl E, Ericson U, Peeters PH, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Johansson G, Johansson I, Tumino R, Boeing H, Drogan D, Amiano P, Mattiello A, Khaw KT, Luben R, Krogh V, Ardanaz E, Sacerdote C, Salvini S, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagherazzi G, Perquier F, and González CA
PubMed ID : 22186699
URL : https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/intake-estimation-of-total-and-individual-flavan3ols-proanthocyanidins-and-theaflavins-their-food-sources-and-determinants-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-study/A217D32223C0CFCEC26CE429D9D83575
Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453·6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377·6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160·5 mg/d; women: 124·8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213·5 mg/d; women: 178·6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26·6 mg/d in men; women: 20·7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29·3 mg/d; women: 25·3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455·2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134·6 mg/d; women: 101·0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.