Estimation of the intake of anthocyanidins and their food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
The British journal of nutrition 2011 ; 106: 1090-9.
Zamora-Ros R, Knaze V, Luján-Barroso L, Slimani N, Romieu I, Touillaud M, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Mattiello A, Grioni S, Crowe F, Boeing H, Förster J, Quirós JR, Molina E, Huerta JM, Engeset D, Skeie G, Trichopoulou A, Dilis V, Tsiotas K, Peeters PH, Khaw KT, Wareham N, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Ocké MC, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Tumino R, Johansson G, Johansson I, Ardanaz E, Sacerdote C, Sonestedt E, Ericson U, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagherazzi G, Salvini S, Amiano P, Riboli E, and González CA
PubMed ID : 21481290
URL : https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/estimation-of-the-intake-of-anthocyanidins-and-their-food-sources-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-study/16370ADFD223F4ABBFCE2845CA166059
Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19·83 (se 1·53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64·88 (se 1·86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18·73 (se 2·80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44·08 (se 2·45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources.