Peripheral Arterial Disease Prevalence in a Population-Based Sample of People with Diabetes on the Caribbean Island of Barbados.
Vascular health and risk management 2022 ; 18: 387-395.
DOI : 10.2147/VHRM.S364993
PubMed ID : 35668835
PMCID : PMC9166688
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a risk factor for amputation and systemic atherosclerotic disease. Barbados has a high diabetes prevalence, and 89% of diabetes-related hospital admissions are for foot problems. Foot examination is infrequent in Barbados primary care. The prevalence and potential risk factors for PAD in people with diabetes in Barbados were studied.
Multistage probability sampling was used to select a representative population sample of people ≥25 years of age with known diabetes or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%. We administered the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire and assessed the ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) and Doppler waveform in both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries. Participants were classified into categories based on ABI as follows: PAD ≤0.90 in any leg; borderline 0.91 to 0.99 in one leg and the other not ≤0.90 or >0.4; normal 1.00 to 1.40 in both legs; and non-compressible >1.40 in one leg and the other not ≤0.9. Waveforms crossing the zero-flow baseline were categorised as normal. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the associations of potential risk factors with PAD.
Of 236 participants (74% response rate, 33% male, median age 58.6 years), 51% had previously diagnosed diabetes. Of nine people with symptoms of definite or atypical claudication, four had PAD and one had non-compressible arteries. ABI prevalence (95% CI) was PAD 18.6% (13.8, 24.6), borderline 21.9% (16.6, 28.4), normal 55.5% (49.4, 61.5) and non-compressible 3.9% (1.6, 9.3). Increasing age and female gender were independently associated with PAD. Over 80% of normal legs (ABI 1.00 to 1.40) had normal posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis waveforms, while only 23% legs with PAD (ABI ≤0.90) had normal waveforms in both arteries (Kappa = 0.43).
Asymptomatic PAD is common in people with diabetes and requires ABI screening to detect it. Female gender is associated with PAD.