Sixty-five common genetic variants and prediction of type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes 2014 ; 64: 1830-40.
Talmud PJ, Cooper JA, Morris RW, Dudbridge F, Shah T, Engmann J, Dale C, White J, McLachlan S, Zabaneh D, Wong A, Ong KK, Gaunt T, Holmes MV, Lawlor DA, Richards M, Hardy R, Kuh D, Wareham N, Langenberg C, Ben-Shlomo Y, Wannamethee SG, Strachan MW, Kumari M, Whittaker JC, Drenos F, Kivimaki M, Hingorani AD, Price JF, Humphries SE, and UCLEB Consortium
DOI : 10.2337/db14-1504
PubMed ID : 25475436
PMCID : PMC4407866
We developed a 65 type 2 diabetes (T2D) variant-weighted gene score to examine the impact on T2D risk assessment in a U.K.-based consortium of prospective studies, with subjects initially free from T2D (N = 13,294; 37.3% women; mean age 58.5 [38-99] years). We compared the performance of the gene score with the phenotypically derived Framingham Offspring Study T2D risk model and then the two in combination. Over the median 10 years of follow-up, 804 participants developed T2D. The odds ratio for T2D (top vs. bottom quintiles of gene score) was 2.70 (95% CI 2.12-3.43). With a 10% false-positive rate, the genetic score alone detected 19.9% incident cases, the Framingham risk model 30.7%, and together 37.3%. The respective area under the receiver operator characteristic curves were 0.60 (95% CI 0.58-0.62), 0.75 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.77), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.78). The combined risk score net reclassification improvement (NRI) was 8.1% (5.0 to 11.2; P = 3.31 × 10(-7)). While BMI stratification into tertiles influenced the NRI (BMI ≤24.5 kg/m(2), 27.6% [95% CI 17.7-37.5], P = 4.82 × 10(-8); 24.5-27.5 kg/m(2), 11.6% [95% CI 5.8-17.4], P = 9.88 × 10(-5); >27.5 kg/m(2), 2.6% [95% CI -1.4 to 6.6], P = 0.20), age categories did not. The addition of the gene score to a phenotypic risk model leads to a potentially clinically important improvement in discrimination of incident T2D.