Associations Among Plant-Based Dietary Indexes, the Dietary Inflammatory Index, and Inflammatory Potential in Female College Students In Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2020
Aljuraiban GS, Gibson R, Al-Freeh L, Al-Musharaf S, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Oude Griep LM, Chan Q
DOI : 10.1016/j.jand.2021.08.111
PubMed ID : 34481119
URL : https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212267221012557
Saudi Arabian diets are transitioning to more Western dietary patterns that have been associated with higher levels of inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests plant-based diets are related to lower levels of inflammation; however, the definition of plant-based diets varies.
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which an overall Plant-Based Diet Index (PDI), Healthy-PDI (hPDI), and Unhealthy-PDI (uPDI) vs Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index correlate with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level.
This was a cross-sectional study carried out at King Saud University. Data on dietary intake, anthropometrics, and hs-CRP were collected.
Female students aged 19 to 35 years (n = 401) were recruited from King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February and May 2019.
The main outcome was hs-CRP level.
Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between hs-CRP, each PDI, and Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII).
E-DII and uPDI scores had a moderate and a small positive correlation with hs-CRP levels (r = 0.46 and 0.22, respectively), whereas PDI and hPDI scores had a small and a moderate inverse correlation with hs-CRP levels (r = -0.13 and -0.31, respectively). A 1-standard deviation higher E-DII score was directly associated with a 1.05 mg/L higher hs-CRP level (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.38; P < 0.0001) after adjusting for body mass index. Overall PDI score was not associated with hs-CRP levels. A 6-point higher hPDI and uPDI score were associated with a 0.13 mg/L lower hs-CRP (95% confidence interval -0.08 to -0.28) and a 0.15 mg/L higher hs-CRP (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.31), respectively, after adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors; however, results attenuated and were no longer statistically significant after body mass index adjustment.
Although all indexes had a small or moderate correlation with hs-CRP, only E-DII score was positively associated with hs-CRP level. Future research can examine PDI-based interventions for lowering inflammation.