Are consumption of dairy products and physical activity independently related to bone mineral density of 6-year-old children? Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses in a birth cohort from Brazil.
Public Health Nutrition 2018 ; 21: 2654-2664.
PubMed ID : 29766835
PMCID : PMC6141993
URL : https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/are-consumption-of-dairy-products-and-physical-activity-independently-related-to-bone-mineral-density-of-6yearold-children-longitudinal-and-crosssectional-analyses-in-a-birth-cohort-from-brazil/A90DA11CDF3173643185C0DAE6656125
To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of consumption of dairy products and physical activity (PA) with bone mineral density (BMD).
Cohort study with children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort.
Pelotas, a medium-sized Brazilian city.
The study started in 2004 and mothers/children were interviewed/measured periodically from birth to age 6 years. PA was measured by maternal proxy at 4 and 6 years and by accelerometry at 6 years. Consumption of dairy products was measured using 24 h food recall (at 4 years) and FFQ (at 6 years). Total-body and lumbar-spine BMD (g/cm2) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
At 6 years, BMD was measured in 3444 children and 2636 children provided data on objectively measured PA by accelerometry. Consumption of dairy products at 4 years was associated with higher lumbar-spine BMD at 6 years in boys, while current consumption was positively associated with BMD in both sexes (P < 0·001). PA assessed by maternal report at 4 and 6 years of age was associated with higher BMD at 6 years in boys. PA assessed by accelerometry was positively related to total-body and lumbar-spine BMD in boys and lumbar-spine BMD in girls. We did not find evidence for an interaction between PA and consumption of dairy products on BMD.
We observed positive and independent longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between consumption of dairy products and PA with BMD in the total body and at the lumbar spine in young children.