Association between perinatal factors, genetic susceptibility to obesity and age at adiposity rebound in children of the EDEN mother-child cohort.
International Journal of Obesity 2020 ; 45: 1802-1810.
PubMed ID : 33986455
PMCID : PMC8310796
Early adiposity rebound (AR) has been associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in adulthood. However, little is known about early predictors of age at AR. We aimed to study the role of perinatal factors and genetic susceptibility to obesity in the kinetics of AR.
Body mass index (BMI) curves were modelled by using mixed-effects cubic models, and age at AR was estimated for 1415 children of the EDEN mother-child cohort study. A combined obesity risk-allele score was calculated from genotypes for 27 variants identified by genome-wide association studies of adult BMI. Perinatal factors of interest were maternal age at delivery, parental education, parental BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and newborn characteristics (sex, prematurity, and birth weight). We used a hierarchical level approach with multivariable linear regression model to investigate the association between these factors, obesity risk-allele score, and age at AR.
A higher genetic susceptibility to obesity score was associated with an earlier age at AR. At the most distal level of the hierarchical model, maternal and paternal educational levels were positively associated with age at AR. Children born to parents with higher BMI were more likely to exhibit earlier age at AR. In addition, higher gestational weight gain was related to earlier age at AR. For children born small for gestational age, the average age at AR was 88 [±39] days lower than for children born appropriate for gestational age and 91 [±56] days lower than for children born large for gestational age.
The timing of AR seems to be an early childhood manifestation of the genetic susceptibility to adult obesity. We further identified low birth weight and gestational weight gain as novel predictors of early AR, highlighting the role of the intrauterine environment in the kinetics of adiposity.