Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation during Pregnancy and Increased Birth Weight and Skinfold Thicknesses in the Offspring: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study.
Nutrients 2020 ; 12: .
DOI : 10.3390/nu12113466
PubMed ID : 33198145
PMCID : PMC7697774
Multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has previously been associated with positive effects on fetal growth, but its value in high-income countries remains controversial. In this study, we investigated effects of pregnancy MMS on offspring size at birth and adiposity, along with risks of various maternal outcomes of pregnancy, using the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Maternal MMS was reported in 528 out of 970 women who completed pregnancy questionnaires. Gestational diabetes (GDM) was assessed using results from 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests at week 28 of pregnancy. Offspring size at birth was assessed using standard anthropometric measurements and adiposity using skinfold calipers. MMS was associated with increased risk of developing GDM (risk ratio = 1.86 (1.13-3.08), = 0.02), as well as increased offspring size at birth in terms of weight ( = 0.03), head circumference ( = 0.04), and flank, and subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses ( = 0.04, 0.03, and 0.003, respectively). There was no association with quadriceps skinfold thickness ( = 0.2), suggesting that the increased adiposity was partially regionalized. In women who underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, nearly all of these associations were attenuated by adjusting for GDM. These results suggest that the increased offspring size at birth, including (regionalized) adiposity associated with pregnancy, and MMS may be partially related to the development of GDM.