Nutritional adequacy and dietary disparities in an adult Caribbean population of African descent with a high burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Food science & nutrition 2019 ; 8: 1335-1344.
DOI : 10.1002/fsn3.1363
PubMed ID : 32180943
PMCID : PMC7063363
The Caribbean island of Barbados has a high burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits were last described in 2005. A representative population-based sample ( = 363, aged 25-64 years) provided two nonconsecutive 24-hr dietary recalls in this cross-sectional study. Mean daily nutrient intakes were compared with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Subgroup differences by age, sex, and educational level were examined using logistic regression. High sugar intakes exist for both sexes with 24% (95% CIs 18.9, 30.0) consuming less than the recommended <10% of energy from added sugars (men 22%; 15.0, 31.6; women 26%; 18.9, 33.7). Sugar-sweetened beverages provide 43% (42.2%, 44.4%) of total sugar intake. Inadequate dietary fiber intakes (men 21 g, 18.2, 22.8; women 18 g, 16.7, 18.9) exist across all age groups. Inadequate micronutrient intake was found in women for calcium, folate, thiamine, zinc, and iron. Older persons (aged 45-64 years) were more likely to report adequacy of dietary fiber (OR = 2.7, 1.5, 4.8) and iron (OR = 3.0, 1.7, 5.3) than younger persons (aged 25-44). Older persons (aged 45-64 years) were less likely to have an adequate supply of riboflavin (OR = 0.4, 0.2, 0.6) than younger persons. Men were more likely to have adequate intakes of iron (OR = 13.0, 6.1, 28.2), folate (OR = 2.4, 1.3, 4.6), and thiamine (OR = 3.0, 1.5, 5.0) than women. Education was not associated with nutrient intake. The Barbadian diet is characterized by high sugar intakes and inadequate dietary fiber; a nutrient profile associated with an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related noncommunicable diseases.