Phytoestrogen exposure correlation with plasma estradiol in postmenopausal women in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk may involve diet-gene interactions.
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2005 ; 14: 213-20.
Low YL, Taylor JI, Grace PB, Dowsett M, Scollen S, Dunning AM, Mulligan AA, Welch AA, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Day NE, Wareham NJ, and Bingham SA
DOI : 14/1/213
PubMed ID : 15668497
Cross-sectional studies investigating the relationship between phytoestrogens in diet, urine, or blood with plasma estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) have been inconclusive. We investigated the relationship among phytoestrogen exposure, polymorphisms in the ESR1, COMT, CYP19, and SHBG genes, and plasma estradiol and SHBG levels in 125 free-living postmenopausal women taking part in a cohort study (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk) using three different markers: dietary, urinary, and serum phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogen levels (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone) in spot urine and serum were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Plasma estradiol and SHBG were measured by immunoassays. Adjusting for age and body mass index, urinary daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and serum daidzein and glycitein were negatively correlated with plasma estradiol (R = -0.199 to -0.277, P <0.03), with particularly strong associations found in the 18 women with CC genotype for ESR1 PvuII polymorphism (R = -0.597 to -0.834, P < 0.03). The negative correlations observed between isoflavones and estradiol in women as a whole became no longer significant when we excluded women with ESR1 PvuII CC genotype, indicating that the correlations observed were due mainly to this group of women. There was no relationship between dietary isoflavones and plasma estradiol and no association was found between any of the dietary, urinary, and serum phytoestrogen and plasma SHBG or between these factors and polymorphisms in CYP19, SHBG, and COMT. We conclude that higher isoflavone exposure is associated with lower plasma estradiol in postmenopausal women and that this preliminary study is suggestive of the involvement of diet-gene interactions.
Study : EPIC-Norfolk: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk Cohort