Urinary sucrose and fructose as biomarkers for sugar consumption.
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2005 ; 14: 1287-94.
PubMed ID : 15894688
The use of 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as potential biomarkers for sugars consumption was investigated in two studies of 21 healthy participants living in a volunteer suite where dietary intake was known and all specimens collected. The dose-response was assessed in 12 males using a randomized crossover design of three diets containing constant levels of 63, 143, and 264 g of sugars for 10 days each. Both sugars and sucrose intake were significantly correlated with the sum of sucrose and fructose concentration in urine (0.888; P < 0.001). To assess effects with volunteers consuming their habitual varying diets, seven males and six females were fed their usual diet (assessed beforehand from four consecutive self-completed 7-day food diaries) for 30 days under controlled conditions in the volunteer suite. The mean (+/-SD) calculated total sugars intake was 202 +/- 69 g/d, 41% from sucrose. Mean (+/-SD) urinary sucrose and fructose were 36.6 +/- 16.6 and 61.8 +/- 61.3 mg/d, respectively. The sum of sucrose and fructose in urine was significantly correlated with sugars (0.841; P < 0.001) and sucrose intake (0.773; P = 0.002). In the regression, 200 g of sugars intake predicted approximately 100 mg of sucrose and fructose in urine. The correlation between individual means of randomized 16 days of sugars intake and 8 days of sugars excretion data (as used in validation studies) remained as high as that obtained with the means of 30-day measurements and the regression estimates were very similar. Twenty-four-hour urinary sucrose and fructose could be grouped into a new category of biomarkers, predictive biomarkers, that can be used in studies determining the structure of dietary measurement error in free living individuals and to relate sugars intake to disease risk.