Dietary sources of vitamin C, vitamin E and specific carotenoids in Spain.
The British journal of nutrition 2004 ; 91: 1005-11.
García-Closas R, Berenguer A, José Tormo M, José Sánchez M, Quirós JR, Navarro C, Arnaud R, Dorronsoro M, Dolores Chirlaque M, Barricarte A, Ardanaz E, Amiano P, Martínez C, Agudo A, and González CA
DOI : 10.1079/bjn20041130
PubMed ID : 15182404
A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition to assess the principal food sources of vitamin C, vitamin E, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in an adult Spanish population. The study included 41446 healthy volunteers (25812 women and 15634 men), aged 29-69 years, from three Spanish regions in the north (Asturias, Navarra and Guipúzcoa) and two in the south (Murcia and Granada). Usual food intake was estimated by personal interview through a computerized version of a dietary history questionnaire. Foods that provided at least two-thirds of the studied nutrients were: fruits (mainly oranges) (51 %) and fruiting vegetables (mainly tomato and sweet pepper) (20 %) for vitamin C; vegetable oils (sunflower and olive) (40 %), non-citrus fruits (10 %), and nuts and seeds (8 %) for vitamin E; root vegetables (carrots) (82 %) for alpha-carotene; green leafy (28 %), root (24 %) and fruiting vegetables (22 %) for beta-carotene; fruiting vegetables (fresh tomato) (72 %) for lycopene; green leafy vegetables (64 %) for lutein; citrus fruits (68 %) for beta-cryptoxanthin; citrus fruits (43 %) and green leafy vegetables (20 %) for zeaxanthin. In conclusion, the main food sources of nutrients with redox properties have been identified in a Mediterranean country. This could provide an insight into the interpretation of epidemiological studies investigating the role of diet in health and disease.