Understanding perceived risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with modelled risk, clinical risk factors, and psychological factors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2014 ; 106: 412-9.
PubMed ID : 25467619
To determine the perceived risk of type 2 diabetes in a sample of healthy middle-aged adults and examine the association between perceived risk and modelled risk, clinical risk factors, and psychological factors theorised to be antecedents of behaviour change.
An exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of perceived risk of type 2 diabetes (framed according to time and in comparison with peers) was conducted using baseline data collected from 569 participants of the Diabetes Risk Communication Trial (Cambridgeshire, UK). Type 2 diabetes risk factors were measured during a health assessment and the Framingham Offspring Diabetes Risk Score was used to model risk. Questionnaires assessed psychological factors including anxiety, diabetes-related worry, behavioural intentions, and other theory-based antecedents of behaviour change. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine associations between perceived risk and potential correlates.
Participants with a high perceived risk were at higher risk according to the Framingham Offspring Diabetes Risk Score (p<0.001). Higher perceived risk was observed in those with a higher body fat percentage, lower self-rated health, higher diabetes-related worry, and lower self-efficacy for adhering to governmental recommendations for physical activity (all p<0.001). The framing of perceived risk according to time and in comparison with peers did not influence these results.
High perceived risk of type 2 diabetes is associated with higher risk of developing the disease, and a decreased likelihood of engagement in risk-reducing health behaviours. Risk communication interventions should target high-risk individuals with messages about the effectiveness of prevention strategies.