Risk factors for herpes simplex virus type-1 infection and reactivation: Cross-sectional studies among EPIC-Norfolk participants.
PLoS ONE 2019 ; 14: e0215553.
PubMed ID : 31071098
The prevalence of, and risk factors for, herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection and reactivation in older individuals are poorly understood.
This is a prospective population-based study among community-dwelling individuals aged 40-79 years, followed from 1993, formed as a random subsample of the UK-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort. HSV-1 seropositivity was derived from immunoglobulin G measurements and frequent oro-labial HSV reactivation was self-reported. We carried out two cross-sectional studies using logistic regression to investigate childhood social and environmental conditions as risk factors for HSV-1 seropositivity and comorbidities as risk factors for apparent HSV oro-labial reactivation.
Of 9,929 participants, 6310 (63.6%) were HSV-1 IgG positive, and 870 (of 4,934 seropositive participants with reactivation data) experienced frequent oro-labial reactivation. Being born outside the UK/Ireland, contemporaneous urban living and having ≥4 siblings were risk factors for HSV-1 seropositivity. Ever diagnosed with kidney disease, but no other comorbidities, was associated with an increased risk of frequent HSV reactivation (adjOR 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.40).
Apparent HSV-1 seropositivity and clinical reactivation are common within an ageing UK population. HSV-1 seropositivity is socially patterned while risk factors for oro-labial HSV reactivation are less clear. Further large studies of risk factors are needed to inform HSV-1 control strategies.
Study : EPIC-Norfolk: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk Cohort