Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.
The British journal of nutrition 2011 ; 107: 910-20.
Freisling H, van Bakel MM, Biessy C, May AM, Byrnes G, Norat T, Rinaldi S, Santucci De Magistris M, Grioni S, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ocké MC, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Vergnaud AC, Romaguera D, Sacerdote C, Palli D, Crowe FL, Tumino R, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Trichopoulou A, Naska A, Orfanos P, Boeing H, Illner AK, Riboli E, Peeters PH, and Slimani N
PubMed ID : 21791145
PMCID : 0
Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.